The ideas that justified the American economic and political system in the minds of most of our citizens throughout that long period came under stress during earlier storms—from the 1950s to the 1970s in particular—and a few beams and joists cracked but did not give way. Today the manifold crises of capitalism mean that the entire existing intellectual structure of American capitalism is breaking up.
In the aftermath of last week’s referendum, our country faces major challenges. Risks to the economy and living standards are growing. The public is divided. The Government is in disarray. Ministers have made it clear they have no exit plan, but are determined to make working people pay with a new round of cuts and tax rises.
At the time when Solidarnosc was legal (september 1980 – december 1981) its direction made a lot of provocations and miscalculated decisions so the enthousiasm that prevailed in september 1980 was gradually lost what explains the rather successfully introduced martial law in december 1981 and the then relative popularity of the leading « People’s Poland » aristocratic General Wojciech Jaruzelski. At the beginning of 1981, Solidarnosc had almost 10 millions members …but when it was banned, quite few workers did strike to save it and two years later, when the regime created a new Trade Union, the OPZZ, 7 millions out of 12 millions salaried people did join it. When Solidarnosc was relegalised in 1989, it could not even recuperate 2 millions of its former 10 millions members, the majority of salaried remaining then, 5 millions of them, in the « communist » but bureaucratised OPZZ Trade union. Since that time both opportunistically lead trade unions lost the majority of their former members.
Introduction On October 7th, 2012, after hearing of his victory as the nation‘s candidate with 56 percent of the vote, President Hugo Chávez Frias announced...