International Security Positions Table

By Anuradha Chenoy*
Adjunct Professor, Jindal Global University and Associate,
Transnational Institute-(The Netherlands)

There are broadly four major positions on international security, with several differences within each of these. To simplify I present and explain this positions in the Table below:

  1. Hegemony 2. Anti-Hegemony Russia and China 3. Neutrality. 4.Common Security

International Security- Different Positions

Strategic Positions 1.Hegemonic Positions

(US and West +)

2.Counter-hegemony (Russia and China) 3.Non alignment/

Neutrality Swing States

4.Common Security

(Progressive CSOs)

Political aim; strategy -Maintain hegemony +exceptionalism;


-Legitimized as protecting democracy, rules based order, protecting people from authoritarianism.


Military and economic build up to catch up and retaliation; regional hegemony; + Multipolarity Multipolarity;

Anti-hegemony; strategic autonomy; asserting sovereignty; reform multilateral institutions.



Common Security: De-constructs dominant hegemonic narratives +


Method 1 Create+ Construct threat perception:

Demonize/otherize/fear and phobia.

2 This becomes a ‘national security issue and threat and so sacrosanct.

3.Reinfocrce this NS threat narrative by echo chamber of media, ‘Think Tanks’ ‘research’; strategic community;

4.Cancel any opposition to this threat construction

5.Strenthen Military blocs-NATO;

Interventions for ‘democracy’ military bases;


6.Hybrid wars.


Counter threat perceptions. Demonize the West;

3.National security.

4.Clamp down on internal dissent.

5.Arms race.

6.Alliance of ‘others’.

Reforms UN; No military alliances

new regional groupings G77/ BRICS/ ASEAN;

regional arms race

-trends towards political and economic centralization.

1.Shows intersections of  war +corporate media +political funding complex;

2. Crack the dominant narratives;

3. support and link the resistances 4.*Hybrid and intersectional intellectual response.

Diplomacy Spread Threat, phobias, Demonization; ‘othering’

Narratives; bribe/buy out comprador politicians.

Military Interventions in name of democracy.

Threat narratives; Covert operations;

Blame other side for everything.

Talk, engage, conversation leverage both sides for state gains. Regional alliances. Peoples summits, Negotiated settlements; No to NATO/war.
Economic Strategies Unilateral Economic Measures-Sanctions;

Trade with friend shoring’;

DEBT And Conditionalities;




De-Dollarization Globalization

Develop technologies,

Counter sanctions.

‘Catch up’ neoliberalism +globalization; oppose unilateral sanctions; extract resource. Show connections between defence and social exp; Common security and common prosperity.
Military Military/Arms

Support MICs; increase Bases; militarization.

Arms Race;

nuclear race;

State control of MICs.

Local conflicts;  global disarmament;

Collective security; Four Nos;

Increase def expenditures.

Call for global disarmament; link climate crises with militarisation..
Technology Dominance and control of Research and Technology/To restrict flow of US technology; by patents; Missile Technology Control Regimes. Focus on military and new technologies despite western controls. Ask for Transfer of technology. Use and  develop alternate media;

critically support the resistance to  hegemonism and militarism.


Information wars Information domination and narrative control in sync with info and corporate media. Isolated on global information. Though they have some alternate media. Local nationalist media; control media;  but lack international communications. Use social media, creative peace movements;


Strategy and tactics Use Proxies. Uphold Proxies. Regional assertions and regional alliances Expose Proxy wars.
Social Racism,  cultural stratification, phobias: Islamophobia, Russo-phobia; China phobia etc;

Co-optation of women, colour in militarisms.

Contest Western racism and stereotypes; nationalisms. Anti-racism; cultural chauvinisms; internal stratification; identity politics; majoritarianism.


Anti-racism; for diversity; plurality;



Holistic peace with justice

Global Interests


For the Free World

Binary Choice; with us or against us

Existential choice.



Present themselves as a choice;

Existential choice.

National interest; class interests Human Security and look for choices. Common security; human security;

International law;

Non alignment.

Theory Realism/ neo liberalism; neo conservatism; militarism. Personality cult, ultra-nationalism; victimhood. Militarism. Post colonialism, nationalist revanchism; globalisation, realism, neoliberalism Theorise common security; link with anti-war  movements and thinking.


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