The 2015 COP21 summit in Paris was presented as a last chance to reach a global agreement to control climate change caused by human activity. The fact that 187 countries made commitments with the aim of limiting the global temperature increase by the end of the century to ‘well below’ 2°C (and possibly 1.5°C) can indeed be seen as a success! However, the targets will not be achieved without very substantial policy changes. The ‘Nationally Determined Contributions’ (NDCs) – the commitments made by individual national governments – do not add up to enough of a reduction in carbon emissions to reach that goal, even assuming that they will be fully achieved.
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