By Anuradha Chenoy*
Adjunct Professor, Jindal Global University and Associate,
Transnational Institute-(The Netherlands)
There are broadly four major positions on international security, with several differences within each of these. To simplify I present and explain this positions in the Table below:
- Hegemony 2. Anti-Hegemony Russia and China 3. Neutrality. 4.Common Security
International Security- Different Positions
|Strategic Positions||1.Hegemonic Positions
(US and West +)
|2.Counter-hegemony (Russia and China)||3.Non alignment/
Neutrality Swing States
|Political aim; strategy||-Maintain hegemony +exceptionalism;
-Legitimized as protecting democracy, rules based order, protecting people from authoritarianism.
|Military and economic build up to catch up and retaliation; regional hegemony; + Multipolarity||Multipolarity;
Anti-hegemony; strategic autonomy; asserting sovereignty; reform multilateral institutions.
|Common Security: De-constructs dominant hegemonic narratives +
|Method||1 Create+ Construct threat perception:
Demonize/otherize/fear and phobia.
2 This becomes a ‘national security issue and threat and so sacrosanct.
3.Reinfocrce this NS threat narrative by echo chamber of media, ‘Think Tanks’ ‘research’; strategic community;
4.Cancel any opposition to this threat construction
5.Strenthen Military blocs-NATO;
Interventions for ‘democracy’ military bases;
|Counter threat perceptions. Demonize the West;
4.Clamp down on internal dissent.
6.Alliance of ‘others’.
|Reforms UN; No military alliances
new regional groupings G77/ BRICS/ ASEAN;
regional arms race
-trends towards political and economic centralization.
|1.Shows intersections of war +corporate media +political funding complex;
2. Crack the dominant narratives;
3. support and link the resistances 4.*Hybrid and intersectional intellectual response.
|Diplomacy||Spread Threat, phobias, Demonization; ‘othering’
Narratives; bribe/buy out comprador politicians.
Military Interventions in name of democracy.
|Threat narratives; Covert operations;
Blame other side for everything.
|Talk, engage, conversation leverage both sides for state gains. Regional alliances.||Peoples summits, Negotiated settlements; No to NATO/war.|
|Economic Strategies||Unilateral Economic Measures-Sanctions;
Trade with friend shoring’;
DEBT And Conditionalities;
|‘Catch up’ neoliberalism +globalization; oppose unilateral sanctions; extract resource.||Show connections between defence and social exp; Common security and common prosperity.|
Support MICs; increase Bases; militarization.
State control of MICs.
|Local conflicts; global disarmament;
Collective security; Four Nos;
Increase def expenditures.
|Call for global disarmament; link climate crises with militarisation..|
|Technology||Dominance and control of Research and Technology/To restrict flow of US technology; by patents; Missile Technology Control Regimes.||Focus on military and new technologies despite western controls.||Ask for Transfer of technology.||Use and develop alternate media;
critically support the resistance to hegemonism and militarism.
|Information wars||Information domination and narrative control in sync with info and corporate media.||Isolated on global information. Though they have some alternate media.||Local nationalist media; control media; but lack international communications.||Use social media, creative peace movements;
|Strategy and tactics||Use Proxies.||Uphold Proxies.||Regional assertions and regional alliances||Expose Proxy wars.|
|Social||Racism, cultural stratification, phobias: Islamophobia, Russo-phobia; China phobia etc;
Co-optation of women, colour in militarisms.
|Contest Western racism and stereotypes; nationalisms.||Anti-racism; cultural chauvinisms; internal stratification; identity politics; majoritarianism.
|Anti-racism; for diversity; plurality;
Holistic peace with justice
|For the Free World
Binary Choice; with us or against us
|Present themselves as a choice;
|National interest; class interests Human Security and look for choices.||Common security; human security;
|Theory||Realism/ neo liberalism; neo conservatism; militarism.||Personality cult, ultra-nationalism; victimhood. Militarism.||Post colonialism, nationalist revanchism; globalisation, realism, neoliberalism||Theorise common security; link with anti-war movements and thinking.|
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